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We've had a quite a few threads in the past and some very  recently discussing the finer points of solo diving a topic which I find very very interesting, not because I intend to throw my kit in the car and drive off to remote dives sites and dive alone, but because I've never felt comfortable with the percieved safety of the buddy system as we know and use it.

This doubt was instilled in me as a complete novice when I was taken down by various DL's who were supposed to be looking after me but who were quite often just enjoying their own dives, on one particular dive I got my first stage trapped under some steel on the wreck of the Breda, it wasn't a biggy but the clang of metal against metal and the knowledge that I couldn't move sent a shiver of fear through me and I watched wide eyed as the fins of my DL swam off into the gloom, I started to get very scared realising that a few more kicks and we were separated and I had no idea what was happening behind my head.... As I say it was nothing, I simply moved slowly down and backwards, cleared the object and then finned quickly in the direction of my supposed guide,buddy and instructor who was now out of sight.. When I caught up with him he was busy shining his torch down into a hold, he turned to point something out to me not even slightly aware that we'd just been separated or that his complete novice had just had a major sphincter loosening moment, and could for all intents and purposes still be back there all alone, stuck and having a major dicky fit...

I realised at that moment that this buddy malarky wasn't all it was cracked up to be, and with time and experience one begins to realise that even with good buddy's around you (and there are lots of good buddy's about) that the whole alien underwater environment and all of the problems that trying to exist in that environment bring, really really limits the capability of the 'Buddy Sytem' being something that one can or should rely on....

Bring on Self Sufficiency Bring on training to Dive Solo

Now before some of you start screaming Eeek and having a go, I'm not saying that we should all go off with the mindset of "I'm solo so bugger you jack" No not at all, infact I always want a buddy with me, I love diving with our Mark (my brother) or 2tanx or others too many to mention and having a right laugh underwater, I like nothing more than the excited post dive banter back on the boat and I would feel I was missing a lot if I were climb back onto a boat after my solo dive with nobody to have shared it with..

What I'm a great believer in is having the equipment and the training to become totally self sufficient, being able to handle all expected situations and hopefully handle most if not all of the unexpected ones, any that I can't handle I would then hope that the tentative link that is the 'Buddy System' would come into play, or if not, then  that part would have to come under the banner of accepted risk.

Although I stand up and pontificate about this issue, I'm not actually there yet myself, not with either my equipment or my training, I'm still reliant on the 'Buddy System' as it exists but I know where I want to be and one day I will be there, and as others have said I believe that once I'm capable of fixing any issues that I have than that will ultimately allow me to assist others more easily, ergo a better buddy.... So by right's if we all were capable of diving solo and being completely self sufficient we'd all be better buddy's...

Anyway.. this rant was brought on by an advert I'd seen for a Solo Diving course and the text that came with it seemed to describe things perfectly so I thought I'd use the magic of cut & paste and stick parts of it in here for all to discuss, personally I'd like to see many more of these types of course become available and look forward to the day when all of our standard organisations BSAC, SAA, PADI TDI etc teach and support a  solo course.


Going Solo

The diveboat arrives at West Caicos and the divemaster calls everybody together for a pre-dive briefing.

Welcome to the divesite. Who needs a buddy?

Several hands go up. Yours is one of them. The divemaster starts to pair everyone up in buddy teams and you approach your new diving companion cautiously. What are they going to be like in the water? Are they a competent diver? Will you have to help them out during the dive? As you shake your new buddy's hand you realize that they must be thinking exactly the same thing about you.

One of the traditional golden rules of scuba diving is, Never dive alone. From the early training manuals of the 1960's the buddy system has been regarded the single most important safety procedure yet conceived due to the fact that in an emergency situation a buddy can provide assistance to a diver experiencing problems. Having a competent buddy can certainly be useful in many situations and many divers feel more comfortable underwater when a buddy is close at hand.

In addition to this, one of the main reasons people dive is to share their underwater experiences with their buddy. When diving the incredible wall systems here in the Turks and Caicos Islands there is nothing more satisfying than re-living your close encounters with the creatures you encounter during the dive.

For years the buddy system has been considered practical, safe and fun.

But the buddy system can also become a double edged sword. What happens if the buddy you are paired up with is not a competent diver? In recent years there have been an alarming number of instances when buddy diving has not always proved to be the safest way to dive. During a vacation divers can often find themselves buddied up with complete strangers upon the dive boat and are expected to be responsible for this diver throughout the entire dive. Sometimes you may be unaware of the divers level of experience and comfort-level in the water. The dive turns into a lottery and the stakes can be high. In some instances an unknown buddy can actually cause more problems during the dive and in extreme instances recreational divers have actually found themselves being sued by their incompetent buddies for not providing adequate assistance in an emergency.

Many experienced divers are now asking themselves if it might not be safer to sometimes conduct their dives alone, well away from a buddy they have only just met and who may actually endanger them during the dive. Scuba Diving International are now offering Solo Diver Specialty courses for any experienced divers who wish to dive solo and these courses are now available to divers visiting the Turks and Caicos Islands. The course is open to all advanced level divers aged over 21 who have logged over 100 dives and who have passed a full medical examination.

The course has generated a lot of debate recently and divers are expected to make their own informed decision on whether solo diving is for them. It is not a decision to take lightly.

Arguments against buddy diving center upon the belief that each and every dive we take is actually a solo dive. The one person you should be able to rely upon completely during any dive is yourself. Advocates for solo diving claim that far too many certified divers are dependant  divers. The dependant diver relies upon the buddy or dive master to help them out of any problems they may experience. The dependant diver may be unable to help himself or herself in an emergency and may actually place their buddy in more danger. Solo divers believe that all dives (even buddy dives) should be planned and executed as if the diver were conducting a solo dive. They believe that if you are not 100% confident in being able to complete the dive alone, then you should not be considering the dive at all.

The Solo diver Specialty is a one-day course designed to train divers in the benefits hazards and proper procedures for solo diving. Upon successful completion of the course the graduates may engage in solo diving activities once the correct waivers have been signed and approved by the dive boat.

The solo diver candidate is introduced to the principles of redundancy and self rescue throughout the course. They are expected to dive with a pony bottle or double cylinder configuration. These include two independent regulators that the diver could use should an equipment malfunction or low air situation develop. They are expected to be proficient in the use of several items of specialized equipment that are carried as standard by the solo diver. These include compass, delayed surface marker buoys, audible signaling devices, EPIRBS, and various cutting tools.

The skills required during the two-certification dives are demanding. The solo diver is trained to demonstrate excellent pre-dive planning skills, which include planning their own individual air consumption. There is also a fitness test required which involves a surface swim of 200 meters in full scuba equipment. A simulated out of air emergency is conducted at 100ft and various stress management techniques are practiced throughout the course.

The objective of the Solo Diver Specialty is to produce a diver who can asses each individual dive for themselves and then decide whether they wish to dive solo or not. There are many instances when Buddy diving is both appropriate and necessary. The solo diver certification simply offers divers the freedom to choose for themselves whether they wish to dive with a buddy. There is comfort in the fact that even if the solo diver elects to continue diving as part of a buddy team, the skills they have learnt and practiced as part of the solo diver course will always be useful in the unlikely event that a diving emergency should occur.
 

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Dave I dont think,that a one day course can give you the trainig one needs to dive solo. I take customers for dives every day and look after them. So After work i like my solodives and have no one i have to look after.
Michael
 

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Discussion Starter · #3 ·
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I'd have to agree with you Mike, a one day course doesn't seem enough, but the idea of such a course does appeal to me and I hope similar courses, albeit more extensive become the norm.

You're a lucky git being able to dive all day every day... I'm seriously jealous ;)

Best regards
Dave
 

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Aside from the obvious redundant equipment considerations, would you not say the most important aspect of solo diving is the correct mindset?
 

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Absolutely Andy, but remember I'm not really advocating solo diving but rather advocating being trained and equipped to be capable of solo diving or self sufficient diving if you will, so that one can still dive with buddy's but no longer having to be reliant on those buddy's

(Edited by Dave Williamson at 3:13 pm on Oct. 19, 2002)
 

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Advocating solo diving would mean that I think divers should train to be completely self sufficient for the purpose of going off and diving alone....

I wanted to make sure people didn't think that that was the aim of this thread, and that was why I made the comments to Andy...

I've tried to reword my previous post so that it makes more sense but I'm afraid I just keep saying the same thing in slightly different ways.. to me, the statement make sense.. sorry big fella
 

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No need to apologise - I was, in fact, agreeing with you. By training to dive solo, you are doing so not to rely on a buddy. So no real difference between solo and self-sufficiency except you are sharing the experience with someone else with the latter.
 

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Aha - at last some interesting debate.

First off, I believe the buddy system is a cornerstone of diving, both during training and beyond - a kinda safety/social event.

As I dive more and more, particularly more challenging diving such as cold water/crap vis in the UK, I have learnt to both respect the buddy system AND self sufficiency/redundancy. Self-confidence in my own abilities is a state of mind. Example - I always (even 6m hops in the local dock) have my pony available, always carry a spare mask & knife. Why ?? - I have learnt from this and other forums of what has actually gone wrong and try to build in back up. You cant always rely on your buddy who has disappeared in the 2m vis so you have to rely on yourself. My pony is rigged for ME, yes my buddy can use it but if my life is threatened then the buck stops with me.

I will develop this further in the future by getting twins, dual bladders etc etc - BECAUSE IT HELPS MY STATE OF MIND AND HELPS ENJOY THE DIVE without the potential for anxiety ruining a dive. This may reflect on my state of mind - but hey, each to thier own. So yes, agree with self sufficiency

Given that I am/will become more self sufficient, will I try solo diving ?? - Yes I will. Bear in mind my idea of solo diving is not to jump into an unknown pit/sea and go for it - I would have to know the site well first which means I will start by buddying up a few times. Even then, I would not dive solo in a site where I was the only diver - I would dive solo in a site that I both knew well and had other divers present - again I guess its a state of mind.

So, to conclude - yes to buddy diving, yes to self sufficiency and yes to solo diving within the bounds of ones own ability and mind state.

Finally, when I am DM-ing on courses I am solo all the time whilst keeping a close eye on students who are being instructed - is this solo
??  
 

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An interesting thought Kirky about that fact that DM's and instructors are diving solo. But are they? I would hope that students by the time that they are in open water will have sufficent training that they would be able to render some sort of assistance.
I do believe that every diver should be self sufficent, I can think of no-one who I would trust my life to, its mine and I want to keep it. Nor would I give it up to save you.
The problem with solo diving is, that if it becomes acceptable/the norm, we will see those students you feel are not up to buddying you, diving and dying solo.
The powers that be will then clamp down on/stop all diving.
At what stage would you let some-one dive solo? After a 2 day PADI course?
A good debate and one which needs sound arguements on both sides, what would we, the diving comunity gain except an occasional dive when no-one wants to go out to play.
What we stand to loose is incalcuable.
 

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Agree with many of your points - have you ever considered diving solo
(Question to the forum in general)

Another point - Solo diving or dying will not stop the sport - its pretty safe compared with other sports. Imagine banning solo car driving !!! Again is the question about self sufficiency (insurance/MOT/training/brakes etc) more relevant than the individual decision to what they feel is within thier limits.

Again - I agree with the buddy system and the right to dive solo as long as I am not putting others at risk - it could be argued that buddy diving is more of a risk - particularly if the buddy is inexperienced or lacking in confidence in his/her ability, or just plain panics.

The problem with todays society is that when something goes wrong its always somebody elses fault !!!
 

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Kirky
Some time ago, I used to shoot rifles as part of a gun club, and because my job required me to do so. Some idiot in Hungerford allowed a knee jerk reaction from people in power. The same thing happened with pistols, on that occasion it was to stop armed robberies, which have increased.
Whilst ever you are part of a minority sport and deaths occour, if people in power thing they can gain one vote you will loose your rights.
If there is any doubt. look at the pressure to ban wreck diving, there a minority nearly (and it is still in debate) were nearly able to spoil things for the majority.

In answer to your question, Yes I have considered solo diving. I feel the the risks are too great, and I used to jump out of airoplanes for a living
.
But I was younger and dafter then, now I have to drive instead.
 

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Long before I ever took up diving, oh so long, I used to be a keen and enthusiastic hill walker.

I would go off to the Lake District, North Wales, etc etc and tramp the hills.

All the mags, clubs, etc would say the same thing: don't go alone. It's cold and dangerous up there (well - usually cold). If you get in the sh!t you need someone there.

Reader, I ignored that advice. Not just because I'm a billy no mates (gee. you caught me out), not just because I'm an anarchist. 2 main things really: firstly, I wanted to be able to get out of bed on a Saturday morning and think 's*d it! I'm off!' and go without asking or arranging with anyone else. Secondly, because I *liked* it up there alone on the hill.

Another thing; I liked it no better than in 'foul weather' conditions: one of my fondest memories is of a 2 hour walk from Honister Pass in driving sleet at about +1 degree during which I could i) see nothing ii) covered about half a mile - I can honestly say it was slightly extreme. The joy of it was that I had the gear, I felt confident and happy, although challenged - I felt alive.

Now, this solo diving business.

My starting point is that absolutely, anyone who knows what they're getting into should be able to dive solo if that is their wish. I say that because I believe in the maximum freedom of the individual within  the law and decency.

There has been comment in the past on this forum to the effect: what about the people who have to come and scrape you up, your relatives etc.

Not an unfair point if there were any evidence that the buddy system was safer than solo diving by the experienced.

But what about driving my car down the M1? Or doing any other of those dangerous things? Or even - diving with a buddy? Yes, if I die, someone may be asked to come and get my body, someone may feel sad at my passing. But unless and until it can be shown that solo diving is more dangerous than buddy diving I can't think that that argument even gets off the ground. And anyway, it's an argument against anyone ever doing anything dangerous, and I want to be able to do dangerous things.

In addition, my reading around the subject leads me to believe that so many accidents occur during buddy/instructor separation. Ah! I hear you cry, the very proof that you need a buddy! No! I would of couse never say that anyone but an experienced diver (no. You make your own definition) should dive solo. And I completely agree with what Ammers said in another post: it is very often diver *panic* that kills and that can be caused by the unfamiliarity of being alone and in the brown and smelly. The point I want to make is, why, all things taken into consideration, is the 'self sufficient diver' diving alone really at any more risk than if in a buddy pair?

And if it is - and I want to take that risk - Why Shouldn't I Be Allowed To?

You might get the impression that I am a desperate and irredeemable solo diver. Not at all! I never have. Maybe I never will. I must say that those things that took me up on the hill alone don't seem to apply so much to diving, and I do realise they're different. Indeed, for the reasons in particular that Willo mentioned above I much prefer the thought of diving with a buddy, and the crack is a large proportion of that.

But I remain wholly unconvinced that buddying up is an inevitable part of diving; and furthermore I can see how you could get to the point of wanting a solo dive. Also, I believe that a solo dive qual would be a good idea, because it could i) reinforce to the prospective solo diver what they need to do to minimise risk ii) relieve a dive operator who lets a 'solo qualified' diver dive from his operation from legal responsibility (see past posts).

So to summarise -

Diving is dangerous (sorry folks, if you hadn't realised)

I don't believe, objectively, that it's more dangerous for a solo diver to dive alone if properly experienced and equipped

There should be a qual for people who can demonstrate their self sufficiency to validate it for solo diving

If we choose to go solo diving, get in the s&!t and die, why is that morally different from if the same thing happens in buddy pairs?

I say: (and please! anyone with fewer than 100 dives, or so, this doesn't apply to you!) go solo if you want! have fun! (If that's the way you want it, but) *Dive Safe!*
 

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one oter thing that comes in to my mind is....what makes people think that after a one day coourse one is up to diving solo. Have those people a clou what one needs to know and what one needs and get those points across in just one day....i may not be the brightest person on this planet but it took me a lot longer than a days course.....or are they just trying to make some quick money...I rather spend the cash onemore set of extra regs.
 

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PaulC
Perhaps I am not seeing the point here, :glasses: I understand about the fundimental right for people to go walking in bad weather against advice. I understand that people may want to go dive solo and it is their right to do so.
It is my right to drive the wrong way down the motorway in a goods vehicle.

Whoa, Stop I hear you say, :ear:  no thats against the rules.
Well until 'the rules' are changed then why dive solo? Independant yes, solo no, can you imagine all those people who have 100 plus dives, mainly in Stoney, Capenwray and the Red Sea trucking off to Scarbrough and jumping in?

My opinion (for what its worth) is that should we start having an increase in deaths caused by solo diving then legislation will follow, what will the authorities do?
Ban solo diving?
Well no, because thats 'not allowed' now, people ignored the advice. I know, Mr Blair (or whoever) will ban diving. with exceptions, perhaps led dives only (Red Sea divers?)
What votes would it cost, ask yourself how may divers there really are, compare them to the hunting lobby.

I'm sorry but you can see the writing on the wall unless the diving comunity shows that it's safe. And that just does not include the majority of divers. How many safe drivers are there, compared to the numbers that drive?
 

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Kai Ora all,
          After following this post very carefully as I feel it pertains to me..
I am a Solo diver, Even thou this is more to the conditions than an express desire to be..However after reading these posts I cant see what all the fuss is about..
To my way of thinking it is the irrational mind that causes accidents.. If you go down with a prepared attitude and you know what risks you are to undertake.
We have all had our moments where things just dont feel right and I genarally come up and sort out what doesnt feel right or I move to a diffrent depth and or location..
Example we went for the "Big Dive weekend", this weekend
unfortunately a southerly came up and weather conditions turned to sh**, 4 mt swells and less than 1 foot vis.
that was in the 15 mins why we were rigging up..
I took the splash, went down and came straight up
18 metre dive for 5 mins ( I min to hit the bottom and 3 staging at 5 mtrs)..
So the question is" If I had a buddy would I have felt like staying down in less than perfect conditions and had a hard and less than enjoyable dive or what I did come up, head to the local hotel and dive into the deep end of a very nice pint of speights"..
If id stayed the " Risk" would have been marginal or no more risk than at any other time..
So in a long winded way I guess Im just stating that Buddy or no Buddy At all times it is the indivual that is responsable for his/her saftey and you dive to your comfort zone.. And as far as I see most people push there comfort zones when diving with a buddy..
But by the same token after reading all the posts in this Forum. I have gone out and bought a pony, just to increase my saftey margins...
Just my perceptions
Steve
 

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And just one more point I should Add is that even thou we dive alone, there are always other divers around and excellent boat people upstairs to catch us after we come up from our dives..And I also dive sites that i am conversant with
Steve
 

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Excellent points one and all, this thread has far exceeded my expectations.... let me add some more fuel to the fire...

Firstly wouldn't you agree that the buddy system harks back to the day's of yore when divers used a single first stage and a single demand valve... to the day's when an octopus was an eight tentacled beasty and a pony was something you rode to market, it harks back to the day's when the only alternative air source was your buddy and you and your buddy had to know how to share that single air source back to the surface.

Diving has evolved so much that we do not need to be shackled to the old school of thought, diving has evolved to a point where with the correct equipment configuration, the correct training and the correct mindset, it can be as safe to dive alone as it is with a buddy, but the caveats are very very important and you must have all three to be successfull.....

1) The correct equipment configuration 2)The correct training 3) The correct mindset

We have a situation at the moment where hundreds of divers may be diving with none of the above... and are totally relying on a buddy to pull them out of the mire if and when it hits the fan, it's not their fault, it's what they've been taught, or should I say it's a lack of what I think should of been taught.

Too many are trained to completely rely on the buddy system for their redundancy, yet so often we as divers are buddied up with people that we haven't got a clue about underwater.. We are taught to rely on a person who could just as easily leave you in the shit as help you... Too often are we diving in viz where a fin kick or two can seperate buddy's from their AAS... Too often are we teamed up with strangers who don't give a toss for you as your AAS is tucked away in their BC pocket and yet, we're all taught that your buddy is your friend.

Currently we have a situation within the SAA for example where a beginner can be taken through their pool training, made to believe in the buddy system as a vital part of their safety equipment, taken out and sheperded around for 14 open water dives and are then given a certificate that allows them to dive up to a depth of 50m on a single tank with no redundancy...

(50m!!!! thats 162.5 feet below the surface of the ocean for gods sake)

Now to achieve this certified level of lunacy, the beginner only has to have answered some questions in a relatively simple multi choice exam and to have completed some practical assessments which include, Recovering an unconscious buddy... Identify a suspected DCI problem on a buddy... Perform A.V. on a buddy... Land unconscious buddy... Air share both horizontally and vertically with buddy... All excellent stuff, all highly relevant but who are the trainees rescuing during these exercises?? A buddy....

Why?? Why are novice divers allowed to dive to these insane depths whilst being so massively inexperienced???...

Because they've got a buddy thats why, and that's so deeply ingrained in our thoughts and training principles that we really believe that it's ok to do so.

We are trained to believe that we can only function as a buddy pair, we are trained to rescue and be rescued by a buddy...

Thats great if the buddy pair are a highly trained cohesive machine who know how to handle any scenario, are in tune with each other and each others equipment, but more often than not we dive off a boat withsomeone we've never seen before and wouldn't have a hope in #### of remembering where x,y,or z was stored during a full blown panic situation.

Here's a novel idea...

Instead of concentrating on teaching how to rescue a buddy, how about spending much more time on teaching how to rescue one self, Not to the detriment of the buddy system absolutely not, but in addition to it.

How about limiting depths to experience and equipment configurations

Lets think about training and the equipment necessary for scenarios where you've become seperated from your buddy, cos it WILL happen...

Imagine if you will, a training organisation that from the outset taught that seperation from your buddy, from your Alternative air source was not only a risk but probably guaranteed.....

Imagine that this organisation concentrated on self sufficiency in the water, they concentrated on teaching the skills required to react to equipment failures, techniques for handling a wide variety of scenarios, they professed the necessity for carrying all of your own redundancy, they taught how to remove one self from an entanglement, discussed in depth the issues of panic and fear and how to handle it... and they taught you how to think about your own gas consumption and calculate your gas requirements for every dive including emergency scenarios...

Imagine if this same organisation then certified divers on skill levels and equipment setups..

Certifing people to maximum depths based on training, experience and equipment configurations??

Would something like this make sense, and I'm just thinking aloud here so bear with me...

How about something like this...

Maximum depth allowed on a single tank with no redundancy say 20m... The reason.... this would probably be the maximum depth that a diver might successfully achieve a CESA Controlled Emergency Swimming Ascent for those new to diving... ;)

Maximum depth allowed on a single with redundant air sourse (3ltr pony) to be say 30-35m... The reason.... this is probably the maximum depth that one can achieve a controlled ascent with safety stop.

Maximum depth allowed on manifolded twins say 50m... The reason.... Having the ultimate in redundancy should allow a diver to relatively safely reach the maximum depth allowed by the SAA.

With each equipment config would come practical exams to prove that one can use said config in emergency situations.

Would such an organisation or legislation produce safer diving?? I personally think it it would..
Would such an organisation or legislation be accepted?? Never!! Not unless forced upon people like crash helmets and seatbelts were, but both have been known to save many many lives and are now generally accepted.

Getting back to solo diving... I feel that with today's accepted level of training and equipment configuration then solo diving is in most part unacceptable, but I feel that a highly experienced diver who was willing to spend the time and money on training and the correct equipment or redundancy is as safe if not safer than relying on a complete stranger who's probably diving their own dive anyway.
 

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Well put Dave.
I understand where you are coming from and just to continue the debate a little further.
You like me are a member of a club, one which follows certain training guidelines and is able therefore to monitor members ability.
I learned to dive with PADI, as do more people world wide than either BSAC or SAA. I read an artical in one of this months diving mags featuring one of the FEW PADI clubs, how would they monitor and certify divers for various depths?
When I learnt to dive I personaly had a pony from my 1st open water dive. I dive with people who even after years cannot/will not justify the expense of an independant air source. A well known Yorkshire saying is "They don't make pockets in shrouds".
Perhaps the time has come for the SAA and other organisations to say they will NOT allow divers without indepedant alternate air sources.

New thought, a friend of mine had his car stolen, from a private field where he'd left his keys in the ignition. Or so this is the allegation by the insurance company.
They have refused to pay out £18,000.
Now my life assurance makes that look like peanuts, so if I walked off Blackpool beach to do a spot of solo diving, (which is outside of my training and clubs advice) how much would my dependants get? Answers on postage stamp please.
 

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Dave,
I do like the idea of certification based on equipment, I have become deeply aware of the possible dangers of losing ones buddy and having no available redundancy. I expect my awareness of this is because my buddy is my son and if he loses me and has a problem e.g. blown O ring, he's going to be in BIG trouble, even at 15m panic might set in. So we each dive virtually with full redundancy, OK we only have one knife each, one smb/reel. But as we dive only to 25m I think that is acceptable risk. So we dive with identical kit (does that make me some sort of DIR person) and I am confident that if we loose each other and he has a problem he has the kit to escape, hopefully the mind set also. I am pretty sure if I dived alone then I would take greater risks so compulsion becomes necessary to safeguard the individual, as per seat belts. One minor point crash helmets were worn by nearly 90% of powered two wheeled riders before compulsion took place, those that didnt were generally moped riders.
Matt
 
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